To be able to make my cylinder and visuals all enclosed, I would need to use ultra-short throw projectors, like used in this example:
However, unfortunately, there are none available for me to use within the university, and they are very costly (upwards of £500 each) so I will not be able to purchase my own. This means that I will have to make my cylinder slightly differently to how I first imagined, to be able to project from the outside of the cylinder onto the surface. This way, I will be able to use a number of standard, normal throw projectors which I do have access to within the university.
For this method I will need to experiment with different fabrics and materials that allow projected light to be seen through to the other side, like the effect you get from rear projection: